Andrzej Lis, The Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Jurija Gagarina 11, 87-100 ToruĊ„, Poland, Doctrine and Training Centre of the Polish Armed Forces, Bydgoszcz, Poland. Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..


The aim of the paper is to analyze the knowledge creation and conversion processes in military organizations using the SECI model as a framework. First of all, knowledge creation activities in military organizations are identified and categorized. Then, knowledge socialization, externalization, combination and internalization processes are analyzed. The paper studies methods, techniques and tools applied by NATO and the U.S. Army to support the aforementioned processes. As regards the issue of knowledge socialization, counseling, coaching, mentoring and communities of practice are discussed. Lessons Learned systems and After Action Reviews illustrate the military approaches to knowledge externalization. Producing doctrines in the process of operational standardization is presented as a solution used by the military to combine knowledge in order to codify it. Finally, knowledge internalization through training and education is explored.

Keywords: SECI model, military organizations, knowledge socialization, knowledge externalization,  knowledge  combination,  knowledge  internalization,  counseling, coaching, mentoring, communities of practice, lessons learned systems, after action reviews,  operational  standardization,  military  training  and  education,  military exercises.